The Council on Criminal Justice is a nonpartisan criminal justice think tank and national invitational membership organization. Its mission is to advance understanding of the criminal justice policy choices facing the nation and build consensus for solutions based on facts, evidence and fundamental principles of justice.

The Council does not take policy positions. As part of its array of activities, the Council conducts research and convenes independent task forces composed of Council members who produce reports with findings and policy recommendations on matters of concern. The findings and conclusions in this research report are those of the authors alone. They were not subject to the approval of the Council’s Board of Directors or its Board of Trustees.


William J. Sabol is a professor of criminal justice and criminology at the Andrew Young School of Policy Studies at Georgia State University and a former director of the Bureau of Justice Statistics.

Thaddeus L. Johnson is a PhD candidate in Criminology & Criminal Justice at the Andrew Young School of Policy Studies, a Second Century Initiative Fellowship recipient, and graduate teaching assistant.

Alexander Caccavale earned his master’s degree in criminal justice and criminology at the Andrew Young School of Policy Studies. He is a research analyst for the Atlanta Police Foundation.


Sabol, William J., Thaddeus L. Johnson, and Alexander Caccavale. Trends in Correctional Control by Race and Sex. Washington, D.C.: Council on Criminal Justice, December 2019.


The cover design was created by adults in custody working at Oregon Corrections Enterprises (OCE). The mission of OCE, in partnership with the Oregon Department of Corrections, is to promote public safety by providing adults in custody with work and training opportunities in a self-sustaining organization.


This paper was produced in part with support from the Ford Foundation.