The Council on Criminal Justice is a nonpartisan criminal justice think tank and national invitational membership organization. Its mission is to advance understanding of the criminal justice policy choices facing the nation and build consensus for solutions based on facts, evidence and fundamental principles of justice.

The Council does not take policy positions. As part of its array of activities, the Council conducts research and convenes independent task forces composed of Council members who produce reports with findings and policy recommendations on matters of concern. The findings and conclusions in this research report are those of the authors alone. They were not subject to the approval of the Council’s Board of Directors or its Board of Trustees.


The Council’s Crime Bill project is led by Dr. Richard Rosenfeld of the University of Missouri-St. Louis, former president of the American Society of Criminology. It was produced with the assistance of BOTEC Analysis Corp., a research and consulting firm that develops solutions to issues in public policy, particularly in the areas of crime, justice, and drug policy. BOTEC was founded and led until recently by Mark A.R. Kleiman, who died on July 21, 2019. The project is indebted to his relentless pursuit of crime control and justice. We also thank BOTEC Director of Business Operations Clarissa Manning for her leadership.


The reports in this series benefited from the expertise of our members, including Roy Austin, Marissa Dodson, Mark Holden, Gil Kerlikowske, Nancy La Vigne, Louis Reed, Laurie Robinson, David Safavian, Donald Stern, and Sally Yates. Although the reviewers provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the findings or conclusions.


The cover design was created by adults in custody working at Oregon Corrections Enterprises (OCE). The mission of OCE, in partnership with the Oregon Department of Corrections, is to promote public safety by providing adults in custody with work and training opportunities in a self-sustaining organization.